Oral hygiene is the practice of keeping the mouth, teeth and gums clean and healthy to prevent dental problems by removing plaque and bacteria.
Scaling and root planing is the most common and conservative form of treatment for periodontal (gum) disease.
Scaling is the removal of calculus (commonly called tartar) and plaque that attach to the tooth surfaces. The process especially targets the area below the gum line, along the root.
Plaque is a sticky substance, full of bacteria, that forms on teeth. When plaque hardens over time, it is called calculus.
Plaque is more likely to stick to rough surfaces. For this reason, the root surface is made smooth in a process called root planing. Root planing removes any remaining calculus and smoothes irregular areas of the root surface.
Eventually, to arrest plaque formation polishing needs.